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Screen-printed electrodes for environmental monitoring of heavy metal ions: a review


John Barton, María Begoña González García, David Hernández Santos, Pablo Fanjul-Bolado, Alberto Ribotti, Margaret McCaul, Dermot Diamond, Paolo Magni

Publication Type: 
Refereed Review Article
Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, zinc and copper are among the most important pollutants because of their non-biodegradability and toxicity above certain thresholds. Here, we review methods for sensing heavy metal ions (HMI) in water samples using screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) as transducers. The review (with 107 refs.) starts with an introduction into the topic, and this is followed by sections on (a) mercury-coated SPEs, (b) bismuth-coated SPEs, (c) gold-coated SPEs (d) chemically modified and non-modified carbon SPEs, (e) enzyme inhibition-based SPEs, and (f) an overview of commercially available electrochemical portable heavy metal analyzers. The review reveals the significance of SPEs in terms of decentralized and of in situ analysis of heavy metal ions in environmental monitoring.
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): 
Publication Status: 
Date Accepted for Publication: 
Tuesday, 15 September, 2015
Publication Date: 
Microchimica Acta
Research Group: 
Dublin City University (DCU)
Open access repository: