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Classification of Continuous Vertical Ground Reaction Forces


Chris Richter, Brendan Marshall, Noel O'Connor, Kieran Moran

Publication Type: 
Refereed Original Article
The aim of this study is to assess and compare the performance of com- monly used hierarchical, partitional (k-means) and Gaussian model-based (Expectation-Maximization algorithm) clustering techniques to appropriately identify subgroup patterns within vertical ground reaction force data, using a continuous waveform analysis. In addition, we also compared the perfor- mance across each technique using normalized and non-normalization input scores. Both generated and real data (one hundred-and twenty two verti- cal jumps) were analyzed. The performance of each cluster technique was measured by assessing the ability to explain variances in jump height using a stepwise regression analysis. Only k-means (normalized scores; 82 %) and hierarchical clustering (normalized scores; 85 %) were able to extend the ability to describe variances in jump height beyond that achieved using the group analysis (i.e. one cluster; 78 %). Further, our findings strongly indicate the need to normalize the input data (similarity measure) when clustering. In contrast to the group analysis, the subgroup analysis was able to iden- tify cluster specific phases of variance, which improved the ability to explain variances in jump height, due to the identification of cluster specific predictor variables. Our findings therefore highlight the benefit of performing a subgroup analysis and may explain, at least in part, the contrasting findings between previous studies that used a single group level of analysis.
Digital Object Identifer (DOI): 
Publication Status: 
Date Accepted for Publication: 
Friday, 4 April, 2014
Publication Date: 
Journal of Biomechanics
Research Group: 
Dublin City University (DCU)
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